Tutorial: searching LDAP entries

Warning

A more pythonic LDAP: LDAP operations look clumsy and hard-to-use because they reflect the old-age idea that time-consuming operations should be done on the client to not clutter and hog the server with unneeded elaboration. ldap3 includes a fully functional Abstraction Layer that lets you interact with the DIT in a modern and pythonic way. With the Abstraction Layer you don’t need to directly issue any LDAP operation at all.

Finding entries

To find entries in the DIT you must use the Search operation. This operation has a number of parameters, but only two of them are mandatory:

  • search_base: the location in the DIT where the search will start
  • search_filter: a string that describes what you are searching

Search filters are based on assertions and look odd when you’re unfamiliar with their syntax. One assertion is a bracketed expression that affirms something about an attribute and its values, as (givenName=John) or (maxRetries>=10). On the server each assertion resolves to True, False or Undefined (that is treated as False) for one or more entries in the DIT. Assertions can be grouped in boolean groups where all assertions (and group, specified with &) or at least one assertion (or group, specified with |) must be True. A single assertion can be negated (not group, specified with !). Each group must be bracketed, allowing for recursive filters. Operators allowed in an assertion are = (equal), <= (less than or equal), >= (greater than or equal), =* (present), ~= (approximate) and := (extensible). Surprisingly the less than and the greater than operators don’t exist in the LDAP filter syntax. The aproximate and the extensible are someway obscure and seldom used. In an equality filter you can use the * character as a wildcard.

For example, to search for all users named John with an email ending with '@example.org‘ the filter will be (&(givenName=John)(mail=*@example.org)), to search for all users named John or Fred with an email ending in '@example.org‘ the filter will be (&(|(givenName=Fred)(givenName=John))(mail=*@example.org)), while to search for all users that have a givenName different from Smith the filter will be (!(givenName=Smith)).

Long search filters can easily become hard to understand so it may be useful to divide the text on multiple indented lines:

(&
    (|
        (givenName=Fred)
        (givenName=John)
    )
    (mail=*@example.org)
)

Let’s search all users in the FreeIPA demo LDAP server:

>>> from ldap3 import Server, Connection, ALL
>>> server = Server('ipa.demo1.freeipa.org', get_info=ALL)
>>> conn = Connection(server, 'uid=admin,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org', 'Secret123', auto_bind=True)
>>> conn.search('dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org', '(objectclass=person)')
True
>>> conn.entries
[DN: uid=admin,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org
, DN: uid=manager,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org
, DN: uid=employee,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org
, DN: uid=helpdesk,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org
]

Here you request all the entries of class person, starting from the dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org context with the default subtree scope. You have not requested any attribute, so in the response we get only the Distinguished Name of the found entries.

Note

response vs result: in ldap3 every operation has a result that is stored in the result attribute of the Connection in sync strategies. Search operations store the found entries in the response attribute of the Connection object. For async strategies you must use the get_response(id) method that returns a tuple in the form of (response, result). If you use the get_request=True parameter you ask get_respose() to return the request dictionary too so te returned tuple will be (response, result, request).

Now let’s try to request some attributes from the admin user:

>>> conn.search('dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org', '(&(objectclass=person)(uid=admin))', attributes=['sn', 'krbLastPwdChange', 'objectclass'])
True
>>> conn.entries[0]
DN: uid=admin,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org - STATUS: Read - READ TIME: 2016-10-09T20:39:32.711000
krbLastPwdChange: 2016-10-09 10:01:18+00:00
objectclass: top
             person
             posixaccount
             krbprincipalaux
             krbticketpolicyaux
             inetuser
             ipaobject
             ipasshuser
             ipaSshGroupOfPubKeys
             ipaNTUserAttrs
sn: Administrator

Warning

When using attributes in a search filter it’s a good habit to always request for the structural class of the objects you expect to retrieve. You cannot be sure that the attribute you’re serching for is not used is some other object class, and even if you are sure that no other object class uses it this could always change in the future when someone extends the schema with an object class that uses that very same attribute, and your program suddenly breaks with no apparent reason.

Note that the entries attribute of the Connection object is derived from the ldap3 Abstraction Layer and it’s specially crafted to be used in interactive mode at the >>> prompt. It gives a visual representation of the entry data structure where each value is, according to the schema, properly formatted (the date value in krbLastPwdChange is actually stored as b'20161009010118Z', but it’s shown as a Python date object). Attributes can be queried either as a class or as a dict, with some additional features as case-insensitivity and blank-insensitivity. You can get the formatted value and the raw value (the value actually returned by the server) in the values and raw_values attributes:

>>> entry = conn.entries[0]
>>> entry.krbLastPwdChange
krbLastPwdChange: 2016-10-09 10:01:18+00:00
>>> entry.KRBLastPwdCHANGE
krbLastPwdChange: 2016-10-09 10:01:18+00:00
>>> entry['krbLastPwdChange']
krbLastPwdChange: 2016-10-09 10:01:18+00:00
>>> entry['KRB LAST PWD CHANGE']
krbLastPwdChange 2016-10-09 10:01:18+00:00

>>> entry.krbLastPwdChange.values
[datetime.datetime(2016, 10, 9, 10, 1, 18, tzinfo=OffsetTzInfo(offset=0, name='UTC'))]
>>> entry.krbLastPwdChange.raw_values
[b'20161009010118Z']

Note that the entry status is Read. This is not relevant if you only need to retrive the entries from the DIT but it’s vital if you want to take advantage of the ldap3 Abstraction Layer making it Writable and change or delete its content via the Abstraction Layer. The Abstraction Layer also records the time of the last data read operation for the entry.

In the previous search operations you specified dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org as the base of our search, but the entries we got back were in the cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org context of the DIT. So the server has, with no apparent reason, walked down every context under the base applying the filter to each of the entries in the sub-containers. The server actually performed a whole subtree search. Other possible kinds of searches are the single level search (that searches only in the level specified in the base) and the base object search (that searches only in the attributes of the entry specified in the base). What changes in this different kinds of search is the ‘breath’ of the portion of the DIT that is searched. This breath is called the scope of the search and can be specified with the search_scope parameter of the search operation. It can take three different values: BASE, LEVEL and SUBTREE. The latter value is the default for the search opertion, so this clarifies why you got back all the entries in the sub-containers of the base in previous searches.

You can have a LDIF representation of the response of a search with:

>>> print(conn.entries[0].entry_to_ldif())
version: 1
dn: uid=admin,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: posixaccount
objectclass: krbprincipalaux
objectclass: krbticketpolicyaux
objectclass: inetuser
objectclass: ipaobject
objectclass: ipasshuser
objectclass: ipaSshGroupOfPubKeys
krbLastPwdChange: 20161009010118Z
sn: Administrator
# total number of entries: 1

Note

LDIF stands for LDAP Data Interchange Format and is a textual standard used to describe two different aspects of LDAP: the content of an entry (LDIF-CONTENT) and the changes performed on an entry with an LDAP operation (LDIF-CHANGE). LDIF-CONTENT is used to describe LDAP entries in an stream (i.e. a file or a socket), while LDIF-CHANGE is used to describe the Add, Delete, Modify and ModifyDn operations.

These two formats have different purposes and cannot be mixed in the same stream.

or you can save the response to a JSON string:

>>> print(entry.entry_to_json())
{
    "attributes": {
        "krbLastPwdChange": [
            "2016-10-09 10:01:18+00:00"
        ],
        "objectclass": [
            "top",
            "person",
            "posixaccount",
            "krbprincipalaux",
            "krbticketpolicyaux",
            "inetuser",
            "ipaobject",
            "ipasshuser",
            "ipaSshGroupOfPubKeys"
        ],
        "sn": [
            "Administrator"
        ]
    },
    "dn": "uid=admin,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org"

Searching for binary values

To search for a binary value you must use the RFC4515 ASCII escape sequence for each unicode point in the search assertion. ldap3 provides the helper function escape_bytes(byte_value) in ldap3.utils.conv to properly escape a byte sequence:

>>> from ldap3.utils.conv import escape_bytes
>>> unique_id = b'\xca@\xf2k\x1d\x86\xcaL\xb7\xa2\xca@\xf2k\x1d\x86'
>>> search_filter = '(nsUniqueID=' + escape_bytes(unique_id) + ')'
>>> conn.search('dc=demo1,dc=freeipa,dc=org', search_filter, attributes=['nsUniqueId'])

search_filter will contain (nsUniqueID=\\ca\\40\\f2\\6b\\1d\\86\\ca\\4c\\b7\\a2\\ca\\40\\f2\\6b\\1d\\86). The \xx escaping format is specific to the LDAP protocol.

Entries Retrieval

Raw values for the attributes retrieved in an entry are stored in the raw_attributes dictonary in the response attribute.

ldap3 provides some standard formatters used to format the values retrieved in a Search operation as specified by the RFCs according to the current schema syntaxes. If the schema is known (with get_info=SCHEMA or get_info=ALL in the Server object) and the check_names parameter of the Connection object is set to True, the attributes attribute is populated with the formatted values. If the attribute is defined in the schema as multi valued then the attribute value is returned as a list (even if only a single value is present) else it’s returned as a single value.

Custom formatters can be added to specify how attribute values are returned. A formatter must be a callable that receives a bytes value and returns an object.

What about empty attributes?

In LDAP an attribute must always have a value. An attribute with no value is immediately removed by the LDAP server. This makes harder to access the entry in your code because you must always check if an attribute key is present before accessing its value. ldap3 helps you to write simpler code because it by default returns an empty attribute even if it is not present in the LDAP. You can change this behaviour setting to False the return_empty_attributes parameter in the Connection object.